Unit 1  Text A: Words in use



1 As the gender barriers crumbled, the number of women working as lawyers, doctors, or bankers began to increase significantly from the mid-20th century.


2 With the data collected each year, the owner of the shop can discern customer trends

and how things like weather and economic indicators affect sales performance.


3 His supervisor pushes and motivates him in such a positive manner that he is not only able to reach but to surpass his personal goals.


4 He is a man with a(n) shrewd business sense. He has built his initial investment into a substantial and even excessively large fortune.


5 The conversion of nuclear radiation directly into electricity was an exciting possibility that was being vigorously explored in many laboratories in the 1950s.


6 I was not only shocked but also disgusted that the report tried to distort scientific facts in such a manner that even some highly-educated people were fooled.


7 Sixty-two and blessed with his mother's skin, the fisherman had withstood a lifetime of exposure to the sun and looked as radiant as a man in his forties.


8 French educator Louis Braille invented a simple but ingenious code which has had an impact on the lives of generations of people who are blind.


9 The senators didn't expect us to ask such tough questions, and when we finally did, got stumped and didn't know what to say.


10 This newly established university supports the proposition that a more diverse higher education system is desirable since it would enhance opportunities for lifelong learning.


Language Focus – Expressions in Use



 1. The brick walls of the ruined buildings (were dripping with) green mold and moisture, and she shivered involuntarily, looking down to avoid the sight.

1. 残垣断壁的砖墙上滴着绿色的霉菌和湿气,她不由自主地打了个寒颤,低头躲避。

 2. As urban populations exported finished goods (in exchange for) raw materials from neighboring populations, organized trade grew substantially.

2. 随着城市人口出口制成品(以换取)邻近人口的原材料,有组织的贸易增长了很多

3. Knowing just how quickly a wildfire can spread, some residents of the village decided to leave their homes after the flames (flared up) nearby.


4. Biology teachers often (make an analogy between) the heart and a pump in order to help students understand how the heart works.

4. 生物学老师经常把心脏和泵作类比,以便帮助学生理解心脏是如何工作的。

5. They would like to (set a date for) their wedding and announce their engagement to their families and friends as soon as possible.

5. 他们想尽快确定婚礼日期,并向家人和朋友宣布他们订婚的消息。

 6. He was determined not to sour a perfectly good day with the memory of one jealous classmate trying to (1) (make) a fool (2) (out of) him in front of the entire class.

6. 他决心不让美好的一天因为一个嫉妒的同学试图在全班面前愚弄他的记忆而变得不愉快。

7. The couple (made a pact) never to work at the same time, so that one of them was always on full-time parenting duty, and their child wouldn't have to be looked after by strangers.

7. 这对夫妇(约定)永远不会同时工作,这样他们中的一个就会一直全职照顾孩子,他们的孩子就不用被陌生人照顾了。

 8. The president said that it's the worst earthquake ever to hit the country, and that he (had appealed to) the world for help, asking in particular for heavy -lift helicopters able to carry relief supplies into the isolated mountain areas.

8. 总统说,这是这个国家有史以来最严重的地震,他已经向世界请求帮助,特别是要求重型直升机能够将救援物资运送到偏僻的山区。




Have you ever heard people say that they tend to be more of a right-brain or left-brain thinker?From books to television programs, you have probably heard the term (1)(mentioned) numerous times, or perhaps you have even taken an online test to (2)(determine) which type best describes you.


Do different parts of the brain really control different bodily and mental functions?Over the years,a theory that has (3)(gained) in popularity is that the right brain and the left brain are (4)(responsible) for different modes of thought and that the way in which a person thinks will dependon which side of his brain works more actively.


People who rely more (5)(heavily) on the right half of their brain tend to be more imaginative and spontaneous. They are interested in patterns, shapes and sizes, for the right brain is associated with (6)(artistic) ability like singing, painting,writing poetry, etc. Left-brain dominated people are quite(7)(opposite) in the way they think. They tend to be more logical and (8)(analytical) in their thinking and usually stand out in mathematics and word skills.


While the different functions of the two brain parts may have been (9)(distorted) and exaggerated by popular psychology, understanding your strengths and weaknesses in certain areas can help you develop better ways to learn and study.For example, if you are usually (10)(stumped) in trying to follow verbal instructions,an activity often cited as a right-braincharacteristic, you can benefit from writing down directions and developing better organizationalskills.


   B- Words in Use



1. Hundreds of endangered sea turtles were found dead along the coast last week, (triggering) concerns about pollution and local fishing practices.

1. 上周,数百只濒危海龟在海岸被发现死亡,引发了人们对污染和当地捕鱼行为的担忧。

2. During World War Ⅱ, very often heavy clouds would completely (obscure) the target area, causing the bombs to be dropped in quite the wrong places sometimes.

2. 在第一次世界大战期间,厚厚的云层常常会“完全(遮挡)目标地区,导致炸弹有时被投在相当错误的地方。

3. After the experiment, scientists will wait to see what will happen in these children when they grow up and to see whether the result will support their (hypothesis)


 4. At present, it is difficult to (formulate) an appropriate plan that is systematic and can be widely accepted by economists in the market place.

4. 目前,在市场上很难(制定)一个适当的、系统的、能被经济学家广泛接


5. As one of the youngest professors in the university, Mr. Brown is certainly on the (threshold) of a brilliant career.

5. 作为这所大学最年轻的教授之一,布朗先生无疑即将开创辉煌的事业。

6. The officials of the university should issue a stricter rule to curb the (incidence) of violence and bullying among students.

6. 校方应该出台更严格的规定来遏制学生间的暴力和欺凌事件的发生

7. It is still not possible to confirm or to (refute) the claim that there is a casual relationship between the amount of fat we eat and the incidence of heart attacks.

7. 我们摄入的脂肪量与心脏病发作的发生率之间存在因果关系,这一说法目前还无法证实或驳斥

 8. Since writing is one of the primary means of assessment in the academic (realm) , it is important that students be trained to think critically and write effectively.

8. 由于写作是“学术(领域)”的主要评估手段之一,训练学生批判性思考和有效写作是很重要的。

  9. Every year the leaves fall from the trees and (decay) ; in other words, they turn dark and gradually fall to pieces and become part of the soil.

9. 每年树叶从树上掉下来(腐烂);换句话说,它们会变黑,逐渐碎裂,成为土壤的一部分。

10. According to the (testimony) of your neighbors, you were not at home the night when the crime was committed; so, be sure to tell us where you were.

10. 根据你邻居的证词,案发当晚你不在家;所以,一定要告诉我们你当时在哪里。

    B- Language Focus – Expressions in Use



1. They don't know if their decision will work, but they do know that over time they will succeed more often if they continue to play the odds .

1. 他们不知道他们的决定是否会奏效,但他们知道,随着时间的推移,如果他们继续碰运气,他们会更经常地成功。

2. Aging is a factor that correlates with loss of flexibility. However, how much of that loss is due to our changing lifestyle as opposed to the actual aging process is (subject to) debate.

2. 衰老是一个与灵活性丧失相关的因素。然而,有多少损失是由于我们生活方式的改变,而不是实际的衰老过程,这是一个有待讨论的问题。

3. He (1) (attributes / attributed) his troubles (2) (to) his own endless drive for achievement and the pressures to live up to his parents' ambitions for him.


 4. Projects requiring skills not possessed by the workers are more difficult to accomplish; so, time must (be factored into) the project to allow these workers to obtain the needed skills.

4. 需要工人不具备的技能的项目更难完成;因此,项目必须考虑到时间因素,以使这些工人获得所需的技能。

5. The results of the study (call for) further investigation into whether athletes from different team sports experienced anxiety in similar types of situations.

5. 这项研究的结果需要进一步的调查,以了解来自不同团体项目的运动员是否在类似的情况下经历焦虑。

 6. (By virtue of) its smallness, the house remains extremely inexpensive with respect to energy consumption even if it is not perfectly positioned for solar harnessing.

6. (由于)它的小,房子仍然是非常便宜的能源消耗,即使它不是,完美的定位太阳能利用。

 7. If you do (get stuck on) a word, you can ask your teacher what it means, or look it up in the dictionary or online.

7. 如果你被一个单词难住了,你可以问你的老师它的意思,或者查字典或上网。

8. His knowledge of these waters and his skill in sailing must (come into play) now to keep the boat heading west against the strong currents


Unit 2  Text A: Words in use



We need to improve the quality of education so that our children will not leave school deficient in literary and reasoning skills.


In a society governed by the rule of law,every citizen is subject to possible prosecution if he violates the law.


The delicious meal appeased our hunger and made us feel warm again after having walked in the snow all day.


The pay gap between average workers and top corporate officers has led to pubic outrage as executives receive large packages despite falling share prices.


The military insists on conformity in many areas,for example, dress and haircut,with the primary objective of promoting group unity.


My daughter used to play with the dog by taking a strand of its hair and then spending a long time rubbing, combing and twisting it.


When she left for the party,she took great care to make her necklace and shoes complement her dress.


It was necessary to provide living places for transient immigrants passing through the area on their way to more permanent dwellings.


They had just moved in,so they needed to buy a number of kitchen appliances, including a microwave oven, a toaster,and a coffee maker.


She wanted a beautiful and elegant outfit to attend the wedding of a friend, but couldn’t find anything satisfactory in the nearby shops.


deficient 英 /dɪ’fɪʃ(ə)nt/ a.不足的,有缺陷的,缺乏的,不足的。

prosecution 英 /prɒsɪ’kjuːʃ(ə)n/ n. 起诉,指控

outrage 英 /'aʊtreɪdʒ/ n.义愤,愤慨,震怒

appease 英 /ə’piːz/ vt. 平息,安抚,抚慰

conformity 英 /kən’fɔːmɪtɪ/ n. 遵守;符合;一致;

complement 英 /'kɒmplɪm(ə)nt/ vt. 与……相配,与……互补

strand 英 /strænd/ n. (线、绳、头发等的)股,缕

transient 英 /'trænzɪənt/ a. 短暂的,临时的

appliance /əˈplaɪəns/ n. 家用电器

outfit /ˈaʊtfɪt/ n. (尤指在特殊场合穿的)全套服装

A-Banked cloze



1-10 : J M L B I A H O D F

I was once in a relationship with a woman who was the most brilliant,creative and driven person I'd ever known. I told her these things often because she didn’t see herself this way despite 1)achieving great success and acclaim(称赞)in her professional field. She was also 2)gorgeous and sexy, though she seemed not to realize this either, so I told her these things too. But while I thought it was more important to praise her brilliance, it seemed to mean more to her that she was 3) considered attractive.


 My experience with this girlfriend exemplifies a common phenomenon in life-when it comes to complimenting a woman,men often walk a very difficult line. Of course, 4)B context matters. In a professional setting, talking about appearance is often inappropriate, but at a singles club, it may be important. She will be very pleased if a man thinks her clothes and 5)I accessories are pretty, or her hair looks wonderful. However, things in between these two cases are unclear. Women have every right to be recognized and 6)A appreciated for their intelligence and creativity. But at the same time, they want to be admired for their looks as well, for example, their perfect skin 7)H complexion and elegant outfits.


Unfortunately, most guys don’t understand this. If we receive compliments from women, they're usually about our achievements, not our looks. Most of us don't expect a woman to tell us how 8)O handsome or sexy we are, and some of us would find it hard to regard such a(n) 9)D comment as sincere.


I'm not saying it's very hard to be a guy these days.It is important for every man to understand how to treat women with both respect and 10)F admiration. But as far as the right balance of these two is concerned, we really have no frame of reference, especially when it comes to looks.



A-Expressions in use




1. Every month, the Community Services Center offers several lectures on health and fitness in hopes of introducing people to healthier lifestyles.


2. Do you know who came up with the idea of having cheesecake for dessert yesterday? It was delicious and made everyone happy.


3. The pain medication left Claudia feeling rather dull and sleepy, and soon after dinner she apologized for being such poor company and excused herself to bed.


4. When I was young, I was obsessed with maps, and I sometimes spent the whole day charting land routes from one point to another.


5. To make immigrants comfortable reaching out to police for help, more than 70 cities now bar police from asking them to prove their legal status.


6. Mary was often accused of“having a strong personality”because she was not afraid to voice an opinion on subjects about which she was knowledgeable.


7. At the end of his term in office the governor was criticized for failure to live up to his campaign promise.


8. Results of a survey revealed that of the top 10 automobile makers in terms of customer satisfaction, six were Japanese and two were German.



B-Language Focus – Words in Use



1. Once the divers went deep down under the sea, the lack of sunlight (hampered) their visibility, making them unable to see the sunken boat.

1. 一旦潜水员潜入深海,阳光的缺乏阻碍了他们的能见度,使他们无法看到沉船。

 2. It was a miracle that he survived the (mortal) wound in his chest although doctors thought he would certainly die. 

2. 虽然医生们认为他肯定会死,但他能从胸部的致命伤口中活下来真是个奇迹。

3. Twice divorced, Layne says she knows all too well about how money troubles can (corrode) the bond of marriage.


 4. Before the interview started, she said, "Let me (preface) our discussion by reminding our listeners of the title of your book."

4. 在采访开始之前,她说:“让我讨论的开始前,提醒听众你的书名。

5. The audience loves the movie because the main character (embodies) core American values of self-reliance and hard work.

”5. 观众喜欢这部电影是因为主角体现了自力更生和努力工作的美国核心价值观。

6. As the author of the book argues, genders, races, classes, and even nations exist not as sealed entities (实体), but rather as part of a set of (interwoven) relationships.

6. 正如这本书的作者所说,性别、种族、阶级甚至国家不是作为封闭的实体()存在的,而是作为一组(相互交织的)关系的一部分。

7. The railroad, which was about 2,000 kilometers long, (knit / knitted) the whole country together and made its rapid industrialization possible.

7. 这条大约2000公里长的铁路把整个国家连接在一起,使迅速的工业化成为可能。

 8. The novel tells the story of a young man who struggles hard to accomplish his dreams that (collide) with reality.

8. 这部小说讲述了一个年轻人为实现梦想而努力奋斗的故事,而梦想与现实发生了碰撞

9. What attracted me most in the museum was a stone sculpture of an ancient warrior in a Roman (costume) , complete with helmet, sword and shield.

9. 博物馆里最吸引我的是一个穿着罗马服装的古代战士的石雕,包括头盔、剑和盾牌。

10. The (predominant) color in his paintings is white, whereas other colors such as blue and yellow are only used occasionally.

10. 在他的绘画中,白色是主要的颜色,而其他的颜色,如蓝色和黄色只是偶尔使用。

B-Language Focus – Expressions in Use



 1. He had (enquired about) the possibility of working in the mailroom at William Morris, but the agency had nothing to offer at that moment.

1. 他曾询问是否有可能在威廉·莫里斯公司的邮件收发室工作,但当时该公司没有任何答复。

2. The researchers believe that this study will help them understand climate change and future energy needs (1) (from a) new (2) (perspective) .

2. 研究人员认为,这项研究将帮助他们从新的角度理解气候变化和未来的能源需求。

3. The rate of American women who have sensitive skin seems to be (on the rise) due to increased use of cosmetics.


4. When you have to (be accountable to) the people who elected you, it's hard not to think about the consequences of what you are doing.

4. 当你必须选举你的人负责时,很难不去考虑你所做的事情的后果。

5. I must save up my money to get a new pair of sports shoes because all of my current ones (are worn out / are wearing out) . 

5. 我必须攒钱买一双新运动鞋,因为我现在所有的那双都穿坏了

6. The US Food and Drug Administration regulates only bottled water sold across state lines, but that produced and sold in the same state (is exempt from) regulation.

6. 美国食品和药物管理局只对跨州销售的瓶装水进行监管,但在同一州生产和销售的瓶装水(不受)监管。

7. He wanted to work as a computer engineer after graduation, but his parents did not (approve of) this idea.

7. 他想毕业后当一名计算机工程师,但他的父母不同意这个想法。

8. Many users of this brand of mobile phones are known for (being addicted to) their devices, to the point that they even give them various nicknames

8. 很多使用这个品牌手机的人都以对他们的设备上瘾而闻名,甚至给他们起了各种各样的绰号

Unit 3 Text A: Words in use



exquisite 英 /'ekskwɪzɪt; ɪk’skwɪzɪt; ek-/ a. 精致的,精美的

The curtains changed the atmosphere of the house completely and made it into a place of exquisite beauty.


disperse 英 /dɪ’spɜːs/ v. (使)分散,驱散


As the sun dispersed the clouds, we enjoyed our afternoon of playing cards in the forest under the clear sky and observing the most spectacular view I have ever seen in my life.


decentralize 英 /di:'sentrə’laɪz/ v. (使)(政府、组织等的部门)分散


The big company decentralized their operations last year and opened several regional offices in the country to meet the needs of the market.


deduce /dɪ’djuːs/ vt. 推论,推断;演绎出

It is not easy to deduce a trend of growth from the available facts since they are quite scarce and not that convincing.


scarce /skeəs/adj. 缺乏的,不足的;稀有的

fixture /'fɪkstʃə; -tjə/ n. 设备;固定装置;固定于某处不大可能移动之物

Formerly found only in large industrial applications, microwave ovens now have become a standard fixture of most modern kitchens.


frugality /fruː’gælɪtɪ/ n. 俭省,节俭

He calls on the public to save in everyday life and believes that frugality is the key to battling a culture that rewards mindless consumption.


administrate /əd’mɪnɪstreɪt/ vt. 管理;经营,实施

He is suitable for the position as he is young enough to understand what the teenagers think but old enough to administrate their programs.


disjointed /dɪs’dʒɒɪntɪd/ adj. 脱节的;杂乱的;脱臼的

When asked about her whereabouts at 9 o’clock that night, she gave a rather disjointed response, which caught the detective’s attention.


revive /rɪ’vaɪv/ vi. 复兴;复活;苏醒;恢复精神


Reviving the stalled economy and sticking to promises to bring the deficit down next year is proving to be the principal test for the new president.


stall vi. 停止,停转;拖延

elapse /ɪ’læps/ vi. 消逝;时间过去

A considerable period of time has to elapse before the effects of such security measures as closed-circuit television cameras and cell-phone monitoring become evident in reducing crimes.


[Expressions in use]





1. Because of his quiet personality, many people said they would not elect him president of the institute though they held him in high regard.


2. Peter graduated from college in June and started his work in the auto company in August. In the interim, he took a trip around the country.


3. When his advertisement using the new digital technique drew as many as 5,000 responses overnight, he knew he was onto something.


4. When students are more involved in their academic and extracurricular activities, they will experience a richer campus life which in turn benefits their development.


5. The scientists of the research center keep the good habit of summing up their experience from time to time.


6. Whenever the older kids in school tried to pick on her brother, she would not be afraid to stand up for him.


7. If he doesn’t try to get a ticket now, he's probably not going to get one. So, he might want to take a stab at it one more time.


8. There are a lot of reasons for replacing your hard drive or adding a new one to your old computer, but they all boil down to the need for more space.


[Banked cloze]




1-10 : G I E A H N B O K L

l In some urban centers, workaholism(工作狂)is so common that people do not consider it unusual: They accept the lifestyle as normal. Government workers in Washington D. C. for example,1)G frequently work 60 to 70 hours a week. They don’t do this because they have to;they do it because they want to.


l Workaholism can be a serious problem. True workaholics, being deeply 2)I immersed in their work, allow themselves little or no time to take breaks. They like to work without being 3)E disrupted, and they probably don’t know how to relax.


l But Is workaholism always bad Perhaps not. There are people who work well under 4)A stress. Besides, some studies show that many workaholics have great energy and interest n their own 5)H sphere. Their work is so pleasurable that they are actually very happy. For most workaholics, work and entertainment are the same thing. Their work 6)N challenges them keeping them busy and genuinely engaged.


l Why do workaholics enjoy doing their jobs so much?Of course they get Paychecks from it but it is hard to 7)B quantify the pleasure with money. It offers more than 8)O financial security. Psychologists claim that work gives people an identity and provides them with self-confidence. People have a feeling of satisfaction when they 9)K administrate a business well or complete a challenging piece of work. In addition, most Jobs Provide a socially acceptable way for people to meet others.So, though some people are compulsive(强迫性的)about their work, their 10)L addiction seems to be a safe or even an advantageous one.They feel empty and incomplete when they are involved in activities not related to work.


B-Language Focus – Words in Use



1. Sales promotion not only aims at increasing demand at the consumer level, but also is used as a(n) (stimulus) to attract business people's support.

1. 促销不仅旨在增加消费者层面的需求,而且还被用作一种刺激手段,以吸引商界人士的支持。

 2. The war brought problems of great (magnitude) to the country, with the economy stalled and millions of people left homeless.

2. 战争给这个国家带来了严重的问题,经济停滞,数百万人无家可归。

 3. Wild winds were sweeping through the area at extreme (velocity) , destroying houses and erasing any landmark in their way.


4. The food company promised to provide its small retail outlets and local restaurants with free refrigerators if this year's sales (quota) was met.

4. 这家食品公司承诺,如果满足今年的销售(配额),将向其小零售店和当地餐馆免费提供冰箱。

 5. It is (stipulated) by the board of directors that bonuses exceeding $100 from subordinate enterprises be handed over to the board.

5. 董事会规定,下属企业超过100美元的奖金要上缴董事会。

6. The host of the television program likes to (tease) his guests about their fancy clothes and ask them some critical questions, which always attracts the viewers.

6. 这个电视节目的主持人喜欢调侃嘉宾的华丽服装,并问他们一些批判性的问题,这总是能吸引观众。

 7. At this forum, students discussed topics such as lowering the legal drinking age and increasing the age at which one would be (eligible) to obtain a driver's license.

7. 在这个论坛上,学生们讨论了降低法定饮酒年龄和提高获得驾照的年龄等话题。

8. The explosion of luxury and (premium) brands in China during the last decade has been the result of its strong economic growth and people's increased brand awareness.

8. 过去10年中国奢侈品牌的激增是经济强劲增长和人们品牌意识增强的结果。

9. The speech given by the 80-year-old professor was filled with an unusual mixture of personal reflection and (reminiscence) .

9. 这位80岁的教授的演讲充满了不同寻常的个人反思和回忆

10. Dissatisfied with the abundance of violence on TV, the public television committee has issued a(n) (decree) for great changes in television and radio programs.

10. 公共电视委员会对电视上充斥的暴力事件感到不满,颁布了一项法令,要求对电视和广播节目进行重大改革。

B-Language Focus – Expressions in Use



1. Owing to poor information security, the Information Awareness Office emphasizes that the importance of data privacy should (be embedded in) the formal education process.

1. 由于信息安全欠佳,资讯意识办公室强调资料私隐的重要性,应(纳入)正规教育程序。

2. As a teacher, he enjoys being with students who are able to express their views openly — without (a trace of) fear on their faces or in their voices. 

2. 作为一名老师,他喜欢和那些能够公开表达自己观点的学生在一起——他们的脸上或声音中没有(些许)恐惧。

3. Most people spend up to 90 percent of their time indoors, therefore indoor air quality (is critical to) their health condition.


4. The national park has acquired an additional 7,300 acres, mostly (adjacent to) the coast, where it has been restoring the native habitat of some wild birds.

4. 国家公园获得了额外的7300英亩土地,其中大部分(毗邻)海岸,在那里它一直在恢复一些野生鸟类的原生栖息地。

 5. Our society should try to help those unfortunate people live an independent and productive life rather than (1) (beat) them (2) (down) with the notion that they are not competent.

5. 我们的社会应该努力帮助那些不幸的人过上独立而有成效的生活,而不是用他们没有能力的观念(1)(打)(2)(打倒)

6. Despite the harsh economic conditions of recent years, the local government still (remains committed to) offering generous benefits to its people.

6. 尽管近年来经济形势严峻,当地政府仍致力于为人民提供慷慨的福利。

7. With the growing popularity of the Internet, it is possible to (conceive of) a society where people live where they want, with their jobs following them.

7. 随着互联网的日益普及,有可能(设想)一个社会,人们住在他们想住的地方,工作跟着他们。

8. To (be eligible for) a patent, an invention must be new, useful, original, and not easily discovered or created

8. 要有资格享有专利,一项发明必须是新的、有用的、原创的,而且不容易发现或创造

Unite 4 A Word in use



1. I will conduct a top -to-bottom review of the state departments, agencies, and commissions, and seek to (consolidate) or to eliminate them where appropriate.

 1. 我将对国家部门、机构、委员会进行自上而下的审查,并根据需要进行(合并)或取消。

2. To a 10-year-old girl, you need to offer understanding about her wishes and help her (differentiate) between fantasy and reality.

2. 对于一个10岁的女孩,你需要理解她的愿望,并帮助她(区分)幻想和现实。

 3. When we heard about the (dreadful) suffering of the children and adults, our primary instinct, like millions of others, was to shed tears. 


4. It was when we started living together that we found, to our sadness and surprise, that we were (incompatible) .

4. 当我们开始住在一起时,我们发现,令我们悲伤和惊讶的是,我们不兼容

5. It was (alleged) that he had taken a $50,000 bribe before the project was transferred to another company.

5. 据指称,他收受五万元贿款后,该项目才转至另一间公司。

6. The budget proposal has been described as " (bizarre) " and "inappropriate" by people objecting to it.

6. 预算提案被形容为“(奇葩)”。以及反对它的人所说的“不合适”。

 7. It seems that what people believe and what researchers have found out about the (correlation) between wealth and happiness are more different than overlapping.

7. 似乎人们对财富和幸福的看法和研究人员所发现的财富和幸福之间的相关性的看法不同,而不是重叠。

8. Current expenditure in this museum is (negligible) in comparison with the huge amount which foreign museums of similar standing spend.

8. 与国外同类博物馆的巨额开支相比,这个博物馆目前的开支微不足道

 9. The air and rivers in this area are getting cleaner, and attempts to preserve animal species and their (habitats) have been mainly successful.

9. 这个地区的空气和河流正变得越来越干净,保护动物物种及其栖息地的努力主要取得了成功。

 10. If you can provide rational and (intelligible) debates from an unbiased point of view, maybe we will all learn something.

10. 如果你能从公正的角度提供理性的(可理解的)辩论,也许我们都会学到一些东西。

Expressions in Use



1. After the painter's move to Paris in 1904, Picasso's Rose Period paintings (took on) a warmer and more optimistic mood than the previous Blue Period.

 1. 1904年毕加索搬到巴黎后,他的玫瑰时期绘画比之前的蓝色时期更温暖、更乐观。

took on 呈现

2. There are a number of different occasions when you might be (called upon) to make a speech. Therefore, you need to practice how to speak to a large audience.

2. 你可能在许多不同的场合被要求发表演说。因此,你需要练习如何在大量听众面前演讲。

 3. Schools in the US believe that cheating in examinations (runs against the grain) of the "honor system" proposed by Tomas Jefferson hundreds of years ago.


4. Being a major global concern, rapid population growth is believed by many to (be incompatible with) sustainable management of the environment.

4. 作为一个主要的全球问题,人口的快速增长被许多人认为“与环境的可持续管理不相容”。

5. It seems that many people have (come through) periods of stress, with more physical and mental vigor than they had before.

5. 似乎很多人都经历过一段时期的压力,他们的身体和精神都比以前更有活力。

6. More and more native plants disappear every year. Saving them is important because our own survival (is bound up) with their fate.

6. 每年都有越来越多的本土植物消失。拯救他们很重要,因为我们自己的生存与他们的命运息息相关

7. It's up to you to (differentiate between) those who have your interests at heart and those who would take advantage of you.

7. 这取决于你如何区分那些把你的利益放在心上的人和那些想占你便宜的人。

 8. Although J. K. Rowling's Harry Potter novels are written for "ages 9-12", they (have struck a chord with) many older readers.

8. 虽然j·k·罗琳的《哈利·波特》系列小说是为“9-12岁的人”写的,但它们(引起了)许多年长的读者的共鸣

Banked Cloze



 Farming invariably interferes with the habitats of plants and animals. However, this does not necessarily mean that agriculture and biodiversity are (1) (incompatible). In fact, quite the opposite is true. The sustainable cultivation of plants for food and feed actually enables us to (2) (preserve) biodiversity.


 By 2007, there were more than twice as many people living on the planet as there were in 1961. Over the same period, the total amount of (3) (available) arable (可耕的) land grew by just 10 percent. In comparison with population growth, the expansion of arable land was small. And there are limits to further expansion. A large (4) (proportion) of the earth's surface — like deserts — is not suitable for cultivation, and other areas are (5) (utilized) by humans for roads and buildings. Some land that is rich in biodiversity needs to be preserved and thus should not be (6) (converted) into arable land. The tropical rain forests, for example, have the highest species density in the world, and changing this land for crop cultivation would be (7) (dreadful) to these species' habitats and, indeed, existence.


By 2050, global demand for food will have risen by 70 percent. But the expansion of land available for cultivation has its limits. This is one of the greatest challenges facing agriculture today: How do we (8) (balance) the increased demand for food with the need to maintain biological diversity, now and in the future?


Efficient and (9) (sane) use of land will be key to preserving natural animal and plant habitats. To achieve this aim will depend to a(n) (10) (considerable) extent on the use of modern agricultural methods. If these methods are successfully applied, we believe that agriculture and biodiversity can coexist in harmony.


 B-Language Focus – Words in Use



1. If these different assessment methods converge on the same conclusion, then we can have greater confidence in their outcome.

1. 如果这些不同的评估方法汇聚在同一个结论上,那么我们对它们的结果就会有更大的信心。

2. There is little doubt that the effectiveness of the reform was greatly (impaired) by its internal difficulties and external opposition.

2. 毫无疑问,改革的成效因其内部困难和外部反对而大大受损

3. The pollution from the factories continues to (contaminate) the river and also poses a serious health threat to people living nearby.


 4. Indeed, the (vulgar) behavior popularized by music videos, reality television, and violent movies indicated that authority, standards, and personal responsibility all had declined.

4. 事实上,由音乐视频、真人秀电视和暴力电影普及的(粗俗)行为表明,权威、标准和个人责任都下降了。

 5. The clinic was terribly expensive because the cost of a typical 20-day stay in it was equivalent to the annual salary of an average city (dweller) .

5. 这家诊所非常昂贵,因为在那里呆20天的费用相当于一个城市(居民)的平均年薪。

6. When Hollywood films deal with controversial social issues, they do so, for the most part, in a way that is designed not to (alienate) mainstream audiences.

6. 当好莱坞电影在处理有争议的社会问题时,它们在很大程度上是以一种不(疏远)主流观众的方式来处理的。

7. Many old residents in the neighborhood prefer (strolling) along the beach to sitting in front of the television.

7. 这附近的许多老居民喜欢沿着海滩散步,而不喜欢坐在电视机前看电视。

 8. One way to reduce fear of needles is to explain to patients who need to be (injected) that they will not feel any pain with modern needles.

8. 减少对针头恐惧的一种方法是向需要(注射)的病人解释,使用现代针头他们不会感到疼痛。

 9. We (deplore) the fact that he has shaped his proposals for educational reform while virtually ignoring what is being done along those lines in other regions of the world.


10. They saw factory work as a source of pride rather than low status, and in this way they (inverted) the ideas of people in traditionally more powerful classes of society.

10. 他们把工厂的工作看作是骄傲的源泉,而不是地位低下的源泉,通过这种方式,他们(颠覆)了传统上更有权势的社会阶层的人的观念。

 Expressions in Use



1. In many places of the world, there are still those who encourage women to stay at home and (be obedient to) their husbands.

1. 在世界上许多地方,仍然有一些人鼓励妇女呆在家里,(顺从)她们的丈夫。

2. As the old lady walked toward the door with her grandson, she held on to his arm and (leaned against) his shoulder for support.

2. 当老太太带着孙子走向门口时,她抓住他的胳膊,靠在他的肩膀上支撑着。

 3. We do not (subscribe to) the view that when the data analysis does not give rise to the expected results, the quality of the data is to blame.


4. She is the first woman to (preside over) the agency, which, with a staff of 425, regulates all fishing and hunting in the state.

4. 她是该机构的首位女性负责人,该机构有425名员工,负责管理该州所有的渔业和狩猎活动。

5. When you feel tired, you can try relaxing in a warm bubble bath, listening to music and (shutting out) the world for a while.

5. 当你感到累的时候,你可以试着洗一个温暖的泡泡浴放松一下,听音乐,暂时把世界关在外面

6. When the pop singer first arrived in the city, he (plunged into) the crowds, who had turned out in their thousands to greet him.

6. 当这位流行歌手刚到这个城市时,他一头扎进了成千上万前来欢迎他的人群中。

 7. On the whole, the less education that people have, the more likely they are to (be intolerant of) those who differ from them.

7. 总的来说,人们受的教育越少,他们就越有可能(不能容忍)与自己不同的人。

8. The main idea of the article is that our reliance on modern technology has created a society where people (are disconnected from) one another and immersed in their own world.

8. 这篇文章的主要观点是,我们对现代技术的依赖已经创造了一个社会,在这个社会里,人们()彼此隔绝,沉浸在自己的世界里。

Unit 5 Text A: Words in use



fabricate /'fæbrɪkeɪt/ vt. 制造;伪造;装配

Although he was not a legal expert, he knew it would not be proper to fabricate anything to mislead the public.


nominal [ˈnɒmɪnl] adj. 名义上的; 微不足道的; 票面上的;

He does not work full time there, but he has been the nominal head of the organization’s scholarship program for five years.


temporal [ˈtempərəl] adj. 时间的; 世俗的; 暂存的;

As Mark walked the sites on that initial trip of the migrants, he found some important temporal clues — dated bus tickets, shopping receipts and calendars.


reciprocal /rɪ’sɪprək(ə)l/ adj. 互惠的;相互的;倒数的,彼此相反的

In urban planning, it is important to take into consideration the reciprocal influence between the transportation network and other facilities, for example shopping centers and medical centers.


denote /dɪ’nəʊt/ vt. 表示,指示


The label “Smart Choices” on the front of food packages usually denotes products that meet criteria for lower fat, sugar and sodium (钠) content.


criteria /kraɪ’tɪərɪə/ n. 标准,条件

sodium /'səʊdɪəm/

content /kən’tent/ n. 内容,目录;满足;容量

consecutive /kən’sekjʊtɪv/ adj. 连贯的;连续不断的

The public high school graduation rates in New Mexico and Arizona have been increasing for three consecutive years, thanks to an online program that helps students earn missing credits.


spectator /spek’teɪtə/ n. 观众;旁观者


In the accident at the air show last week, a pilot and 10 spectators were killed when a fighter plane crashed into the crowd.


pilot /'paɪlət/ n. 飞行员;领航员

muttering /'mʌtərɪŋ/ n. 独自怨言,喃喃自语

The mother was not sure where the boys went, but she did hear them muttering something about going out for a movie with friends.


composite /'kɒmpəzɪt/ adj. 复合的,合成的;(火车车厢)综合的;(柱式)混合的;菊科的

This newly released portrait of Planet Earth is actually a composite of several pictures taken earlier this month by a new research satellite.


malicious /mə’lɪʃəs/ adj. 恶意的;恶毒的;蓄意的;怀恨的

You shouldn’t feel insulted. We can assure you he meant to be friendly and there was nothing impolite or malicious in his words.


[Expressions in use]




1. We chatted for half an hour before he finally got to the point: He wanted to work as a business consultant and wondered if I could pass along the name of certain potential clients.


2. Scientists at the research center identified various features that are attached to the commodities purchased by female consumers.


3. The three mountain climbers would have starved to death if the villagers had not found them lying at the bottom of the valley.


4. The boy looked up timidly at his father who was sitting next to him, but he didn't stop crying.If anything, his crying became more intense.


5. Since no one knew how the disease spread, they were suspicious of everything, including mosquitoes, swimming pools, and people from other neighborhoods.


6. At the press conference, the government spokesman avoided answering the question about health-care reform directly. Instead he just wandered around to talk about the harsh economic situation.


7. Mr.Roger, whom you met in the museum yesterday, works as a software engineer and play folk music on the side.


8. These schools were selected for our survey because the composition of their student bodies was representative of district's enrollment, which included a large proportion of children from immigrant families.


[Banked cloze]




1-10 L E O J G H A C I M

l Stereotypes have some truth mixed in with a few generalizations. Sometimes these generalizations can be misleading as they are often based on observation of the 1)L exterior behavior of people in a certain culture. Spaghetti, pasta, mafia (黑手党), gestures, fashion- these are some words commonly used to describe Italians. How much truth is there in the stereotype? As an Italian myself, I will give you some 2)E insights into Italian soul and clarify some misunderstandings that foreigners have about us.


l Spaghetti and pasta are sacred. You can't take pasta away from an Italian meal; otherwise it won't be 3)O complete. A typical Italian meal generally includes pasta as a starter, fish or meat with salad as the main 4)J course, followed by fruit or dessert, and then coffee. But there are considerable regional differences in Italy, and hence 5) G inconsistencies exist between the stereotype and reality. For instance, you might find risotto(加有肉、鱼或蔬菜的调味饭) replacing pasta in some places!


l The Mafia is real: We are not proud of it, but it does exist, especially in the South and on the island of Sicily. Obviously, not every Italian is a member of the Mafia, and most will be 6) H offended if you use the term, even if you are just joking.


l Yes, the way we speak is unique. Italians use 7)A gestures a lot in communication. We simply cannot talk without our hands. If the hands are busy doing something else, we start moving shoulders or other parts of the body.


l We are also fashion victims. You can recognize Italians by the way they dress from head to toe. We wear stylish clothes and 8)C ornaments for every possible occasion. You won't ever see an Italian wearing running shorts combined with long socks: It's simply against our 9I sense of style !


l Italy is made up of many regions and provinces which are similar in some ways and 10) M distinctive in others. The stereotype contains some truth, but being Italian takes a lot more than that.


 Language Focus – Words in Use



1. If the product is defective, the customers can ship it to us at our expense, and we will replace it or (refund) to them the purchase price.

1. 如果产品有问题,客户可以用船运给我们,费用由我们承担,我们将退换货或(退款)给他们。

2. Tensions occur in many smaller communities where development pressure and population growth cause (friction / frictions) between longtime residents and newcomers, who often have different backgrounds and values.

2. 在许多较小的社区,发展压力和人口增长会导致长期居民和新来者之间的紧张关系,他们往往有着不同的背景和价值观。

  3. The manager had lots of questions about the dispute between the two departments, but he resolved to stay (mute) until someone told him the whole truth.  


4. She had hoped to be home early enough to pick up her son from school, but she was (detained) by a long meeting at work until late evening.

4. 她本来希望能早点回家接儿子放学,但她被一次长时间的工作会议拘留到深夜。

5. This analytic software enables businesses to (extract) relevant information about the customers, for example, age and education level, from a large range of documents.

5. 这种分析软件使企业能够(提取)客户的相关信息,例如,年龄和教育水平,从大量的文件。

 6. Every year the American Association of Poison Control Centers (compiles) statistics on accidental deaths from drugs, vitamins and other supplements.

6. 美国毒物控制中心协会每年都会汇编药物、维生素和其他补充剂意外死亡的统计数据。

7. Although not as practical as cars with fixed metal roofs, (convertibles) are appealing because they look cool and ready for summer driving fun.

7. 虽然不像固定金属车顶的汽车那么实用,(敞篷车)还是很有吸引力的,因为它们看起来很酷,可以在夏天驾驶乐趣。

8. The rebels have said that they would not try to take the capital before peace talks (mediated) by a third party begin next week.

8. 叛乱分子表示,在下周由第三方开始的和平谈判(调解)之前,他们不会试图占领首都。

9. She spoke in a(n) (tactful) yet sincere manner, which made him relaxed and willing to talk about his life: his poorly-paid job and his unhappy marriage.

9. 她说话的态度委婉而真诚,这使他很放松,愿意谈论他的生活:他的低收入工作和他不幸福的婚姻。

 10. The president delivered an enthusiastic speech, in which he expressed confidence in building national (cohesion) and unity by improving the life of all citizens.

10. 总统发表了热情的演讲,他在演讲中表达了通过改善全体公民的生活来建立国家凝聚力和团结的信心。

Language Focus – Expressions in Use



1. Women's attainment in career still (lags behind) that of men, even in developed countries where women have been participating in the workforce for decades.

 1. 女性在事业上的成就仍然(落后于)男性,即使在女性已经参加工作数十年的发达国家也是如此。

 2. Talented and diligent, Robert Hume was (put in charge of) managing the entire Company's accounts when he was only 25.

2. 罗伯特·休谟才华横溢,勤奋好学,年仅25岁就负责管理整个公司的账目。

3. A number of economists have proposed that the government should (1) (take a) balanced (2) (approach to) dealing with the nation's tremendous deficits.


4. Over the past few months, Mr. Flake has seen his fame steadily rise, being (singled out) for praise in a Wall Street Journal article and interviewed by some influential journalists.

4. 在过去的几个月里,弗莱克的名声稳步上升,他在《华尔街日报》(Wall Street Journal)的一篇文章中受到了表扬,还接受了一些有影响力的记者的采访。

 5. As soon as the paperwork was done, he left the office and (headed for) the airport to catch an early afternoon flight to Florida.

5. 文书工作一完成,他就离开办公室,(前往)机场,赶下午早些时候的航班去佛罗里达。

 6. Some cities have adopted Bus Rapid Transit, a system in which some features of the train, such as speed, reliability and comfort, are (incorporated into) the bus system.

6. 一些城市已经采用了快速公交系统,这种系统将火车的一些特点,如速度、可靠性和舒适度,都融入了公交系统。

7. The adverse weather conditions raised safety concerns, so they decided to (1) (divert) three flights (2) (to) a nearby airport.

7. 不利的天气条件引起了人们对安全问题的关注,所以他们决定将三架航班改道到附近的机场。

8. According to a study published last month, global warming (has had an impact on) crop yields since 1980, pushing up prices of wheat and corn worldwide.

8. 根据上月发表的一项研究,自1980年以来,全球变暖(已经对)农作物产量产生了影响,推高了全球小麦和玉米的价格。

Unit 6 Gender equality A: Words in use




/'eɪlɪən/ adj. 外国的;相异的,性质不同的;不相容的;陌生的


/'ɒptɪk/ adj. 光学的;视觉的;眼睛的


 /sɪ’metrɪk(ə)l/ adj. 匀称的,对称的


 /'luːbrɪkeɪt/ vi. 润滑;涂油;起润滑剂作用


 /'twɪŋk(ə)l/ v. 闪烁;(眼睛)闪亮,闪闪发光;发亮;轻快移动


 /'miːdɪeɪtə/ n. 调停者;传递者;中介物


 /'aʊt,post/ n. 前哨;警戒部队;边区村落


 /'trævəs; trə’vɜːs/ v. 穿过;来回移动;反驳;阻挠;详细研究;旋转


 /ɪ’mænsɪpeɪt/ vt. 解放;释放


 /dɪ’dʌktɪv/ adj. 演绎的;推论的;推断的

When I first came to this city, everything was alien to me. It took me a long time to adjust myself to the new environment.


Something growing in her brain caused damage to her optic nerve, and doctors thought she would never see again.


The front side of the house has a symmetrical arrangement of windows and door and two windows on each side.


He cleaned the old machine and lubricated the moving parts with a little mineral oil, hoping that it could work again.


We could tell it was a crisp winter night because, overhead, between the shadows of the buildings, a multitude of stars twinkled.


During his work on child protection, he often acts as a mediator between parents and children, making the parents know what they can do and what they cannot do.


Due to safety concerns, the commander ordered his troops to leave their outposts in the mountains and return to their bases in the nearby village.


It’s exciting to travel to a foreign place, no matter whether you’re traversing the wilds of Africa or just making a weekend trip to the countryside.


In the 1970s, a number of countries passed laws to protect women’s rights, announcing that they would emancipate women through education and work.


The basic idea of deductive reasoning is that if something is true of a class of things in general, this truth applies to all members of that class.


Expression in use



1 The amount of oil capable of being extracted from the earth is ever decreasing, and we will be officially running out of oil some day.

1 .可从地球上开采的石油越来越少,总有一天我们会正式用完石油。

2 They sought to emancipate the country from the old rigid traditions and to open it up to different cultures of the world.


 3 In order to cater to customers who don't have credit cards, the company will soon allow shoppers to select products online, pick them up at its .local store and pay for them in cash.


4 We should return the power to the communities and the people, so that they can  have a say on important issues in their own neighborhoods.


5 Every morning the chickens flocked from all corners of the yard and made a racket loud enough to be heard in the village.


6 In the movie, Anne was a bright and charming teenager, and her parents believed she was destined to become a great writer.


7 John arrived late for the baseball game because he had to run errands for mom in the morning to the grocery store and the post office.


  8 After her husband lost his job as a taxi driver two years ago, the family has been scraping by on her small earnings from housekeeping jobs.


Banked Cloze



To invest in women's education and health is important for the overall welfare of the human society. The reason for saying so is obvious, that is, women are playing important roles in modem society. The politicians who levy taxes should know that women contribute to 40 percent of the world's production in agriculture, a quarter in industry, and a third in services. Women farmers in the developing countries grow at least 50 percent of the world's food. In addition to  generating income women continue to take responsibilities for household activities such as childcare, cleaning and preparing food, which are sometimes not as lightweight and easy as generally thought.


Yet women's productivity remains low. Improving women's productivity can greatly benefit economic growth and poverty reduction , which are key development goals around the world. Hence, to enhance womens status is a vital part of the World Bank's strategy for broadly based economic and human resource development.


To improve women's welfare calls for the efforts of both women and men. If long-term change in the conditions of women is to be achieved , the actions and attitudes of men must change, rather than simply to emancipate women from old conventions. Problems affecting women are often closely related to the social  relationships between men and women. For example, it is impossible to deal with women's health problems effectively through approaches that involve only women. Many women's health problems are embedded in unequal gender relation in work loads, responsibilities for family welfare, as well as access to resources and decision-making.


Words in use



1 If you take public (transit)to the airport,  you may have to leave four hours ahead of your departure time as traffic is heavy during rush hours.


2 There are a lot of Western influences in this South Pacific island nation although it was never(colonized) by a Western power.


3One argument against the death penalty is that the court may make a wrong decision and hence the result may be the wrongful (execution)of an innocent person.


4 With a well-defined theme, it is easier for the writer to(distill)his ideas, present them in a simple fashion, and tell the story effectively.


5The rigid division of labor between women and men makes us realize how deeply rooted gender(segregation) is in these societies.


 6A large proportion of the rural population  Is(illiterate)since tens of thousands of people grew up during wartime, when most schools were closed down.


7In recent years, a large number of ancient stone(artifacts) have been uncovered in various East African sites extending along the Nile River.


8 The United States became a larger economy than the United Kingdom in 1872, but the dollar did not (displace)the pound as the reigning international currency until after World War II.


9After several nights of sleeping on the ground and being (vigilant) for bears, the bed in our room at the tiny inn felt like one in a five-star hotel.


10 The new invention may(overthrow)the existing system of commercial networks and bring tremendous changes to the computer industry.


 Expressions in use



1 Toward the end of the season, he(was ejected from) the remaining games for throwing a bottle and a hand towel at officials.


2 Some high school students smoke only because their peers smoke and they are afraid of(being looked down on) if they do not do the same.


3Many first-generation immigrants think of English as the language of power in American society, and some even (forbid)their children(from)speaking their mother tongue at home.


4When we got closer, we saw two thick ropes that (were coiled up with)the top branch of the tree .It seemed that someone had climbed up there to search for a hidden object.


were coiled up with:被卷起来的

 5My father had been writing about and giving speeches on politics for a long time before he (ran for) the Mayor's office in 2014.



6 Although he was not really interested in the job, he took it(against his will) because his parents strongly believed that the position would give him a bright future.


7 When the company reached its lowest point in 2008, nobody thought it had (a ghost of)a chance to be reorganized and revived.


8 When I heard the music on the radio, I thought of my aunt Evelyn, who, at the age of 63,(took up)a career as an opera singer.


Unit7 A Word in use




adj. 无限期的,期限不定的;模糊不清的,不明确的;(词,屈折变化,短语)不定的


adj. 错综复杂的;难理解的,难学会的


v. (使)联合,(使)统一;使协调


v. 为……举行就职典礼;为……举行落成仪式;开创,开展


n. 合作,协作;勾结,通敌;合作成果


v. 扩散,弥漫;减弱,平息(不良情绪或局面);传播,散布

adj. 扩散的,弥漫的;难解的,冗长的


  • v. (用利器)砍,劈;大幅度削减,大大降低;严厉批评,抨击;猛力移动,袭击
  • n. (用刀等)砍,劈;(长而窄的)伤口,砍痕;斜杠,斜线号;<英,非正式> 撒尿,小便;装饰性开叉;(喻)明亮的条纹(或色线);<美> 残留枝桠;沼泽低地


  • n. 穗,流苏;<英>刘海儿;(地区、组织或活动范围的)边缘,外围;偏激的人,极端的活动;干扰条纹,散乱边纹;(动物的)缘缨,(植物的)毛缘;(工资外的)补贴,附加福利
  • v. 在……上装以缘饰,加穗于;形成……的边缘
  • adj. 次要的,非主流的


v. 使通风,使通气;(用呼吸机)给……供氧;


adj. 灭绝的;消亡的;(火山)死的;(贵族称号)无合法继承人的;熄灭了的

1 While conservatives today play a dominant role in mainstream politics, there was once a time when they were on the fringe of American political life.


2 The World Health Organization (WHO) was established in 1948, and one of its first responsibilities then was to unify the separate international health-related treaties in a single code.


3 Because of over-hunting, the number of certain types of whales has been reduced so greatly that they are in danger of becoming extinct


4 The senator, who was against the war, claimed that with all the indefinite and complex economic and political factors, the outcome of the war was still uncertain.


5 Online shopping and other electronic services could well slash the  number of entrylevel jobs in the traditional retail sector.


6 The theater is equipped with a(n) intricate system of stage machinery to meet the demands of even most complex show.


7 On March 28, Yang, a famous singer in China, was there with thousands of visitors to inaugurate the first jewelry store in city.


8 Experts point out people will rea see the need to ventilate their homes for fresh air to get rid of viruses that may cause disease.


9 Our university bas introduced an important new scheme in collaboration with IBM, which will help to prepare students for the working environment.


10 The speed at which new technologies are adopted and diffused can affect the ability of innovators to flourish in a particular economy.


A Expression in use



1 The president of the library points out that once community groups realize they can hold education events there, the library's schedule will quickly fill up.


2 While the energy market share for coal is projected to decline in many parts of the world, coal is still expected to be the most common fuel in the next few decades.


3 I would like to purchase my own home. I have factored in rates, mortgage and house insurance and it's only a bit more expensive than what I currently pay in rent.


4 According to report, there was no evidence showing that these biotech products would pose a risk to human life or health.


5 Before going further, let me clear up an important point about the organizations that are involved in this research program.


6 In many cases, expert power is derived from possession of special knowledge or skills important to the functioning of certain types of organizations.


7 Global stability will hinge on the ability of nations to share the fruits of a shrinking planet in harmony and with greater equity.


8 The holiday shopping season is upon us, and one of the toughest challenges of this time is to find a gift that is appropriate for your dearest and won't burn a hole in your wallet.


A Banked cloze





With environmental damage from coal- and gas-derived power already at crisis levels, even alternatives that are currently limitedly available are looking great. Wind power, an energy source that costs far less than nuclear and coal power and contributes no toxic 1) particulates to the environment, seems to many of us highly 2) viable and ideal.

由于煤炭和天然气发电对环境的破坏已经达到危机水平,即使是目前有限的替代能源看起来也很不错。 风能的成本远低于核能和煤电,而且不会对环境产生有毒微粒,在我们许多人看来,它是非常可行和理想的能源。

But there are people who 3)disagree and are fighting the installation of new wind turbines. They 4)cite bird deaths as an unacceptable side-effect of wind-generated power. Through various forms of protests, they hope to save huge numbers of birds from death at the 5) rotary blades of massive wind turbines.


No one really knows how many birds die each year as a result of the growing wind power industry. Most studies focus on only one or two wind farms. Yet, published studies suggest that wind farms 6)vary considerably in the risk they pose to birds. Some wind turbines don't appear to kill any birds, while others are believed to kill as many as 40 birds per turbine per year. Though these reports tell us 7)little about the total number of birds killed, do tell us that steps can be taken when constructing wind power turbines to 8)minimize their impact on birds. For example, wind farms should not be built on bird migration routes. Wind turbines should be erected in ways to avoid 9)locating blades at a height where birds tend to fly. Wind towers should be 10)designed carefully to prevent birds from sitting or resting on them.


Some reports even argue that well-planned wind power can actually save many birds if it is used increasingly to replace power generation from fossil fuels.


B Word in use




v. 使失效,抵消;中和,使成为中性;使中立;击毁,摧毁(炸弹或军事目标)


v. 透露,公开;揭开,使显露


  • adj. 双的,双重的;双数的;(飞机)双重控制的,复式操纵的;(定理、表达式等)对偶的
  • n. 双数词;对偶定理(或表达式等)
  • v. <英>把(道路)改为复式车行道


adj. 间歇的,断断续续的


  • v. 闪开,躲开;巧妙躲避,施计回避;按变换序列鸣钟;(冲洗或放大时)局部遮光
  • n. 逃避的诡计,骗人的伎俩;躲闪


  • v. 激起……的兴趣,引发……的好奇心;密谋
  • n. 密谋策划,阴谋;秘密的恋情,秘密关系;神秘力量,神秘气氛


v. 预言,预测


adj. 有条理的,连贯的;说话条理清晰的,易于理解的;团结一致的,凝聚的;(波)相干的,相参的;黏着的,黏连的


  • n. 批发,趸售
  • adj. 批发的,趸售的;大规模的,大批的
  • adv. 批发地,成批卖地;完全地
  • v. 批发销售;以……价格批发


  • adj. 易变的,动荡不定的,反复无常的;(情绪)易变的,易怒的,突然发作的;(液体或固体)易挥发的,易气化的;(计算机内存)易失的
  • n. 挥发物;<罕>有翅的动物

1 Up to that time, J hadn't thought much about classical musicians. What had intrigued me were the composers, the instruments and the titles of pop songs.


2 If medicines from two different disease care systems are used simultaneously, they might neutralize the effects of each other, leaving the patient in disappointment.


3 Clothing style in and out of the workplace has evolved considerably. Both men and women ha ve been faced with choices so numerous that many have failed to produce a(n) coherent style.


4 Though oil prices are volatile , most energy experts believe that today's high prices will become the norm as demand in developing economies keeps exerting steady pressure on the supply of oil and gasoline.


5 Cosmetic manuiacrurers would be required to disclose ingredients in their products that are identified as causing cancer or other problems.


6 The truth of matter is, we cannot foretell with any real accuracy what the consequences of the latest biotechnological developments will be.


7 Marie has been avoiding her friends and coworkers. The only person she can't seem to dodge is her next-door neighbor, Lucy.


8 There are still no sewage (污水) systems in most of the city and electricity is intermittent . On a good day, residents get only three hours of electricity on and three hours off.


9 Climate change isn't chiefly an environmental issue. It's a massive social and technological challenge that will force the wholesale transformation of our economy.


10 Many Native Americans perceive their communities as places for maintaining dual citizenship; they see themselves as citizens of their tribal nations as well as citizens of the United States.


B Expression in use



1 Across the country, talk of whether home values will continue soaring or begin to level off  is starting to drown out every other topic.


2 It is important that people who have dull jobs find outside interests to keep boredom at bay , rather than turn to drinking or smoking.


3 The project aims to find out why women, who account for nearly half of the US labor force, represent only 11 percent of all engineers.


4 All these facts point to the need for better understanding of urban ecosystems, and for improvement of the theory to explain and predict their dynamics.


5 Many factories and other places of production in rural areas are unable to pay people for their work because they are starved of funds.


6 Ryan's dream was to become a professional football player, which set him on a collision course with his father who wanted him to be a lawyer or an engineer.


7 Having a lot of material available from anonymous sources is a recipe for information chaos, and chaos is usually neither productive nor healthy.


8 For more than a millennium, generations of Chinese who Jive near the sea have worshipped the goddess Mazu, a woman with magical powers who rescued sailors from disaster.


Unit 8 Text A: Words in use




1.After waking up from a long dream about an evil man that stalked him in darkness, Jonathan found himself lying on a bench in the park.


2.With the improvement of living conditions throughout the world, there has been an increase in the life expectancy of the human race.


3.The city's Real Estate Division will terminate the lease for default if the tenant fails to provide detailed statements of the use of the property.


4. One hour after the plane crash, the president offered condolences to the families of the victims and promised to improve the safety of the nation's aviation.


5.London's museums are presenting several exhibitions chronicling more than 60 years of the city's fashion industry to reflect its role as a fashion exporter.


6.He lost his job as a doctor in 1998, after being sued for malpractice because he once improperly gave prescription drug samples to a patient.


7.On this historic street, visitors can tour several homes from centuries past to get a(n) retrospective look at the city's traditional holiday celebrations.


8.Some customers are calling online for a month-long boycott of the famous soft drink to express their dissatisfaction with its declining quality.


9.Once a contract is signed, revisions of any part of the product design will incur an added fee for the client.


10.All his parents' sisters and brothers have big batches of kids, so he has nine cousins in total, all living here in Rome.


[Expressions in use]



1. Although it is painful to watch him struggling with the difficulty, it is probably better to stay on the sidelines unless he asks for help.


2. An anonymous letter alert the police to the possibility of a terrorist attack at the airport.


3. We had never thought people would be interested in the house, so we were quite surprised that more than a hundred people turned up at the auction.


4. Almost two years had passed since the enemy first tried to lay siege to the town, but instead of being taken over, the town seemed as strong as ever.


5. As was shown in the study, when parents showed feelings of despair, their kids followed to and acted in the same way.


6. In the face of growing alarm about the abuse of research data, scientists from around the world met to discuss how to supervise their own research.


7. The company planned to build computer models that can track the weather, and then to put out weather warnings on its website.


8. He was waiting for a good opportunity to get revenge for all the embarrassments that the game inflicted on him last year.


[Banked cloze]




l Karen was a young mother working as a clerk at a court in North Carolina. Though she had been trained in criminal justice, she quickly found prisons and courts to be 1)J depressing places to work. When her daughter was born, she had to stay at home and be a full-time mother. At that point, she decided to 2)D figure out what she really wanted to do with her life. She knew that she liked office jobs and didn't intend to give up her own career development, but she also enjoyed the 3)H flexibility of staying home and raising her daughter. Therefore, it seemed that she just couldn't find anything that could satisfy these two 4)L seemingly conflicting conditions.


l One day, Karen read in the newspapers that a couple 5)N sued their babysitter for abusing their child. It turned out that the babysitter had a long criminal record.Karen couldn't 6)G imagine hiring someone to watch her child without doing a thorough investigation about that person's background. This7) A sparked a brilliant idea. Karen decided to do something to save other parents' children from 8)E suffering the same fate. And this job didn't require her to leave her home. The next day she got her hometown paper and looked at the ads placed by parents seeking babysitters. She called them and sent them 9)C leaflets to offer her baby-sitting services. Several of them jumped at it. Her business was born and has continued to grow.


l That was 15 years ago. Karen was recently named one of the top 10 business women in North Carolina and has even appeared on Oprah's talk show. Asked about the secret of her success, she emphasized that it was because she was 10)I passionate about what she really wanted to do. In addition, Karen mentioned that patience and persistence were vital to her achievements.


B Word in use



1 Deaf people set their mobile phones to make (vibrate) them rather than ring when a call or a message comes in.


2 The employees of the organization were(indignant)that the management had planted two spies among them.


 3 The building was equipped with a strict security system which would(activate) an alarm if the door was left open for over 20seconds.


4 A voter's religious (adherence) may be one factor, among others, which influences which party he will support in the election.


5 Research indicates that nurses'(timely) response to call bells communicates respect and caring to patients and positively contributes to patient satisfaction.


 6 He and his colleagues were warmrywo at the annual meeting as celebrated (patrons)of the charity fund, which made them a little uneasy.


7 The labor unions throughout the city were(tentatively)conducting negotiations with employers in the hope of reaching acompromise.


 8 A soap opera is a(n) (serial)drama about the daily lives and problems of a group of people and is shown over a period of time


.9 The report (denounces) the federal plans for the $600 million dam, saying that the government sacrifices the environment for corporate profits.


 10 Technological progress could serve as a forceful (impetus) for doctors to use electronic health records.


Expression in use



1Economic depression in the country adds another barrier to the health-care system which (is swamped with)overwhelming costs.


2 If there is no obvious social rule for behavior in a certain setting, a person may just act(in adherence to) his personal standards.


3 He rejected our plan to continue to work on the project. What he said,(in essence), was that we had been simply wasting our time and money.


 4 The problem with climbing the Eiffel Tower to (marvel at)Paris is that you will  miss a magnificent view of the tower itself.


marvel at: 对……惊奇

5Grace wasn't prepared to commit to a major she didn't(feel strongly about),and it wasn't until her junior year that she made a decision.


6Berlin Tempelhof Airport, one of the oldest airports in Europe,(was dubbed)by architect Norman Foster (as)“the mother of all airports”.


7When I entered the building, they were busy (tacking)big signs (up) on walls to prepare for the arrival of crowds of visitors next week.


8His new novel is acclaimed by critics as a masterpiece in which history really(comes to life) and every character is vividly portrayed.


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